Friday, March 20, 2020
The Falcon essays John Tanner was only seven years old when the Shawneese Indians kidnapped him. Having not been able to go through many of the growing pains of being a young adult, he was thrown into a situation where he was mistreated, beaten, and worked almost to the point of almost death. After he had spent nearly two years of his life in a terrible situation where he was treated like an animal, he was sold to a family of Ojibwas. They immediately treated him like an equal, something Tanner never faced before. Throughout his life, John Tanner has been faced with many personal experiences that influenced the way he presents the Ojibwa to the readers of his book, The Falcon. Specifically, the two years of his life that he spent with the Shawneese and the way he treated because of his true cultural identity, white, may have skewed his perception of the Indian population as a whole. When Tanner was a child, at this point still with his original family, he frequently moved around a lot. Never having much responsibility, except watching his little brother, he lived like a child should. However, when the Shawneese Indians took him he was faced with a different type of life all together. When Tanner first arrived in the Shawneese village he was forced to go through specific ceremonies to fulfill the requirement for replacing the grieving mothers child. After, he was left exhausted, and soon fell asleep. When he awoke, he had a huge gash on his head and had been thrown in the bushes because one of the other Indians did not approve of him. For the remainder of the time he was with the Shawneese, he was forced to do hard manual labor such as carrying full deer back to camp after the hunt, gathering corn, and steering the canoe. Tanner recalls how the hunters would frequently get drunk and threaten to kill him, forcing the young boy to hide in the woods. When the Ojibwa finally purchased the boy from the Shawneese he didnt expect any...
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Plus Ã §a Change - French Expression Expression: Plus Ã §a change, plus cest la mÃ ªme chose Pronunciation: [plu sa sha(n)zh plu say la mem shoz] Meaning: the more things change, the more they stay the same. Literal translation: more it changes, more its the same thing. Register: normal How to Use Plus Ã §a Change The pessimistic French expression plus Ã §a change, plus cest la mÃ ªme chose is very often cut down to just the first clause: plus Ã §a change... / the more things change... The shortened French expression is often used in English too, particularly British English.In either language, plus Ã §a change indicates a certain disillusionment or resignation regarding whatever is being talked about. A company makes all kinds of policy changes, for example, but the personnel issues are unaffected. A couple go to marriage counseling, but continue fighting about everything. A new sheriff comes to town, but there is no noticeable impact on crime. New people, new promises, but the same old problems - plus Ã §a change.... Variations: Plus Ã §a change, plus cest pareil: The more it changes, the more its the same.Plus Ã §a change (et) moins Ã §a change: The more it changes (and) the less it changes
Sunday, February 16, 2020
Meaning and Importance of Programmed Life Cycle (PLC) - Term Paper Example The blend applied requires the leader to utilize styles such as visionary. They are necessary because they create future, enable empowerment, and react in an expansive way. The conceptual stage follows the feasibility study phase in which the programme formulation takes place. This phase stresses earnestly on attributes such as listening, analysis, as well as the alignment. At this phase, leaders react by analyzing issues analytically, listening carefully, being change masters, and showing the virtue of convergence. The programme development stage, normally the third stage in the PLC emphasizes the acceptance, commitment, and cooperative. The leader must display team building traits as they apply power to influence the rest of the workforce positively. The fourth phase, which is the execution of the programme stresses on re-alignment (Mclean, et al., 2011). The leader, in this case, reacts by being a decision maker, balances work and leisure; depict trustworthiness and synergy. The final phase is the programme finishing stage. It entails the transfer of the product and information. At this phase, the leader must display the necessary administrative qualities. A recreational programmer using the PLC is capable of sharing a solitary management mechanization platform. The practice of PLC has been deemed realistic and it engages everyone. This allows conducting considerations before making the eventual decision. The outcome of the PLC, therefore, is a result of consultations between the managers and the other staff. Consequently, there exists allegiance among the lower ranked staff. Advertising entails the communication of remunerations of a product or a service by making a segment or the entire community familiar with it. This activity ensures that people are aware of the choices granted to them as consumers. Conversely, publicity refers to an activity involving managing of productions, services, as well as the popularity of a company.
Sunday, February 2, 2020
The Government of the Russian Federation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words
The Government of the Russian Federation - Essay Example The transformation in foreign policy thinking profoundly impacted policy making and was based on the realization that the real security threat to Russia came from the deteriorating economy due to excessive military spending. Rather than applying the overt exhibition of military power, Gorbachev chose to apply political influence. He improved diplomatic relations and economic cooperation by such actions as unannounced personal appearances at public events both within and outside Soviet borders. Gorbachev charismatically utilized the world media and made political concessions in the resolution of regional conflicts and arms negotiations that were previously unimaginable under the old regime. The Ã¢â¬ËNew ThinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ aided the Soviet Union in garnering wide approval of many nations. Its peace-making policy that released Soviet control over Eastern Europe ultimately led to the collapse of communism and the end of the Cold War. Its success would entail radical changes not only in t he way the economy functions, but in social and cultural policy, in Soviet political life, and ultimately, in the way in which the Soviet Union deals with the larger international community. By-products of the Ã¢â¬ËNew Thinking,Ã¢â¬â¢ perestroika (restructuring) and glasnost (openness) initiated far-reaching governmental policy changes that affected virtually every aspect of Soviet life. These new concepts were a distant departure from previous Soviet practices. This discussion will focus on the building of the Russia Federation, the competing ideologies within the government along with RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s new approach to foreign policy and how it was designed to tie in with internal reforms. It will briefly review recent political history leading up to this new way of thinking including how such a radical departure from past procedures and policies was accomplished and the subsequent consequences this reversal of political thought inspired as well as its far-reaching
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Observation of Child with ADHD Childs Particulars: Full Name of Child: Eileen Tay Yi Ling (Pseudonym) Chronological Are: 6 Years, 1 Month (From Date of Collection of Background Information) Gender: Female Race: Chinese Current Grade (Standard) in School: Kindergarten 2 Background Information: Eileen (pseudonym) lives with her family, consisting of her father and mother, her 23 year-old step-brother and a live-in domestic helper. According to the domestic helper, she appears to be closer to both parents than her brother; with she (Eileen) agreeing that she speaks to the parents more than she speaks to her brother. The family of 5 (including the stay-in domestic helper) stays in 3-bedroom condominium at South-Eastern Singapore. She first started going to an early education facility at the age of 3, and is currently enrolled in 3 early education centres (Kumon, The Learning Lab, and EtonHouse), for enrichment classes and kindergarten. Based on the information given by her mother, Eileen enjoys going for classes and is on good terms with her teachers. She also expresses interest in Mathematics, though she (Eileen) has the impression that she is weaker in that very subject itself. Annexe A, which is done approximately 2 weeks before, which shows her mathematics worksheet being done with a perfect score, a point which is consistent with the other worksheets shown during the data collection session. In the areas of language and literacy, Eileen uses mainly English when communicating with her parents, peers and relatives, although she is also generally proficient in her Mother Tongue (Mandarin), which is seen when in the worksheet that she completed (Annexe B) and what was seen when she is reading her storybooks. Eileen also attempts to speak like her parents when engaging in conversation. Eileen is seen to have her strengths in language and literacy, as she is conversant in simple English and is able to provide simple fact-based answers about herself, like where she study, and her family information. Based on the developmental milestones by Chant (2013), Eileen has met the language and literacy developmental milestones of a 5-6 year old. Eileens socio-emotional development appear to be meeting the developmental milestones of her age group, as her parents claim that she is sociable, and that although sometimes got conflict before, but after a while, they are back as friends again (sic). In Kumon, she is closer to 3 of her friends whom she has been in the same class for over 18 months (1.5 academic years). Annexe D shows the art that one of her friends did for Eileens 5th birthday a year ago. Also, Eileen has her own bedroom, and is able to make her own bed in the morning, after waking up, thereby meeting the socio-emotional milestone of being more independent and in charge of his/her behaviour (Child and Youth Health, 2010). Eileens mother also shared that she (Eileen) can accurately give the birthdates of some of her relatives that she is more familiar with, if given their names, although if she is given the birthdates, she may not be able to state whose birthday that is. Her inability to do so is in line with the childs level of cognitive development, as Parke and Gauvain (2009) stated that the inability to reverse a series of mental steps is evident in many other responses of the child between 2 and 6 years old. She also has an attention span of approximately 10-15 minutes, although her attention span may be extended if she is engaged in something of her interest, and if Eileen was engaged in playing with toys of her particular interest, she would get very hooked onto it and that her parents experienced difficulty in getting her to change focus to another activity or task. This is not part of the developmental norms that Schmitt (2012) mentioned, whereby a typically developing childs attention span sh ould be 3-5 minutes of the childs age, which means that for Eileen, she should be able to have an attention span of approximately 18-30 minutes. Data Gathering Plan: Technique One: Conducting an interview-based checklist adapted from Hill Checklist for Attention Deficit and Related Disorders Description of Technique One: The original Hill Checklist for Attention Deficit and Related Disorders is meant for teachers to help Neurotherapy in evaluating the child in question on if he/she has Attention Deficit or other related disorders. The first section focuses more on Attention Deficit, and utilises a Likert Scale of 0-5, and requires the educator to rank the childs behaviours based on the characteristic being not present (0) to very severe (5). Only the first section of the checklist will be used, and it will be implemented through interviewing Eileens mother. In addition, she will be asked to elaborate more on each of the items, by explaining and providing examples and descriptions of what Eileen does. I will be noting down the response of Eileens mother, and a voice-recording will be done for later reference. Rationale of Technique One: Based on the background information collected, Eileen is seen to be performing well in most areas of development. However, her attention span of 10 to 15 minutes, according to the background information given by her mother, is lower that the age-appropriate developmental norm of Schmitts (2012) age-to-attention span ratio of 3-5 times the childs age. Also, as Eileens mother also mentioned that Eileen tended to be very hooked when doing an activity of her interest. This appearance of the lack of focus, while parents having trouble getting the child to divert his/her attention from what interests them (Smith and Segal, 2012) raises a possible risk of the child having Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD). By interviewing Eileens mother, and understanding more about Eileens behaviour, it will give a better insight into if she is in fact at risk of ADD. Technique Two: Conducting an Observation as a supplement to the interview-based checklist (Technique One) Description of Technique Two: At least 2 observation records will be conducted, one running record, and another running record. These observation records will be done on two separate occasions, with a minimum of 3 days in-between each observation session. The observation records will focus on Eileens attention span when she is doing her work, or at play. Environmental factors like the presence of noise and side activities, like people walking pass or the programmes airing on television, will be noted down. Rationale of Technique Two: As Technique One only provides further information given by Eileens parents, the full picture of Eileens apparent lack of attention span may not be clear. Therefore, by observing Eileen, and her environment, while she is on her daily routines like having a meal, doing her work or watching television programmes, will provide a second picture of the possible causes of the short attention span that she has, since observing a child is useful in isolating the root of the problem, inclusive of the environment surrounding the child (LD Online, 2000). An analysis of the observations done will also conducted to have a better insight into the rationale of her actions. This, together with Technique One, a clearer picture of where Eileens development in terms of attention will be seen, as well as if she is possibly at-risk of having ADD. References: Child and Your Health. (2010). Child development: 5-6 year old children. Retrieved from http://raisingchildren.net.au/articles/child_development_5-6_years_cyh.html/context/511 Chant, R. (2013). Developmental milestones of 5-6 year olds. Retrieved from http://starskills.net/blog/developmental-milestones/developmental-milestones-of-5-6-year-olds/ Hill, Robert W. (n.d.) Hill checklist for attention deficit and related disorders. Retrieved from http://www.neurotherapydfw.com/pdf/ChildForm-Teacher26-23-08.pdf LD Online. (2000). Early Intervention Observation of an individual child. Retrieved from http://www.ldonline.org/article/6048/ Parke, R. D. and Gauvain, M. (2009). Child psychology: A contemporary viewpoint. New York: McGraw-Hill Schmitt, B. D. (2010). Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): How to help your child. Retrieved from http://www.cpnonline.org/CRS/CRS/pa_battentn_hhg.htm Smith, M. and Segal, R. (2010) ADD/ADHD in children. Retrieved from http://www.helpguide.org/mental/adhd_add_signs_symptoms.htm Annexes: Annexe A: Mathematics Annexe B: Language (Mandarin) Annexe C: Socio-emotional
Friday, January 17, 2020
On this basis, CDC has set a strong foundation as one of the largest (by both sales and production value) confectionery companies in Vietnam and aims to leverage through expansion of our reach and product strategy into daily use products to become one of the largest food & beverage companies in Vietnam. The overall goal is to meet the daily demands of our consumers. Vision: Ã¢â¬Å"FLAVOR YOUR LIFEÃ¢â¬ CDC creates life's flavor through wholesome, healthy, nutritious and convenient foods. Mission: Kid's mission for consumers is to identify, anticipate and meet the demands of our consumers with food, flavor and beverage products.This includes the current range of products and looks to expand further into beverages, condiments, instant foods, processed foods, eats and health supply to become a full range, food & beverage company. Our goal is to provide products that are market leading in quality, healthy, satisfying and conveniently available all our consumers. Financial: As predicted , 2012 has proven to be a very challenging year for the country as a whole and businesses in particular. GAP growth was lower than expected, inflation remained high and consumer confidence and purchasing power were reduced to marginal growth levels.These factors resulted in making it difficult for all businesses to realize their growth strategies, including us at CDC. However, despite very challenging economic environment of the past 12 months, CDC have successfully completed Stage Three of our four part growth strategy. CDC aimed for Ã¢â¬Å"Profitability through EfficienciesÃ¢â¬ , and they realized that objective in 2012. However we are not stopping there. They are continuing to channel our resources into our core food business and invest in our distribution and supply chain networks.Our primary goal continues to be striving for improved efficiencies which can drive profit by achieving optimal operating performance. To date, our results in this area have been impressive. They gen erated a profit of VEND 490 billion in 2012 as against VEND 349 billion the previous year. Significantly, our ROE increased from 7. 2% to 9. 1%. II. THE BODY Financial accounting is concerned with reporting to external parties such as owners, analysts, and creditors. These external users rarely have access to the information that is internal to the organization, nor do they specify the exact information that will be presented.Instead, they must rely on the general reports presented by the company. Therefore, the reporting structure is well defined and standardized. The ethos of preparation and the reports presented are governed by rules of various standard-setting organizations. Furthermore, external users generally see only summarized or aggregated data. In contrast, managers of a business oftentimes need or desire far more detailed information. This information can sometimes take on familiar formats. Subsequent chapters will reveal typical examples of budgets, segment income repor ts, and so forth.A fundamental awareness of the financial accounting processes and resulting financial statements is a vital prerequisite to understanding the framework for these typical managerial accounting reports. In addition, managers usually request reports that are tailored to specific decision- making tasks. These reports are apt to become more Ã¢â¬Å"free formed. Ã¢â¬ Managerial accountants must be able to adapt their generalized knowledge of accounting to develop customized data and reports that are logical and support sound management processes. Managerial accounting information tends to be focused on products, departments, and activities.It necessarily crosses over a broad range of functional areas including marketing, finance, and other disciplines. Many organizations refer to their internal accounting units as departments of strategic enhance, given their wide scope of duties. Managerial accounting information is ultimately based on internal specifications for data accumulation and presentation. These internal specifications should be clear and consistent. Great care must be taken to insure that resulting reports are sufficiently logical to enable good decisions. Specific reporting periods may be replaced with real-time data that enable quick response.And, forecasted outcomes become critical for planning. Further, cost information should be disseminated in a way that managers can focus on their business components segments. . Features of useful management accounting information in CDC. The features are required in order for management accounting information to be useful, mainly in making decisions. The information must be: relevant, understandable, timely, comparable, reliable and complete and last with cost benefits features. A) Relevant. The management needs to consider only the relevant information. The information must be relevant to decision making in process.We can understand simple, relevant information is a part of information that con sequences in different decision being made for a particular activity. The piece of information have to be able to effect decision that has to be made. Relevance accounting information is the compilation of a company's financial dealings. CDC present accounting information to internal and external business stakeholders for creation decisions. Relevant to investors, creditors, and others for investment, credit, and similar decisions, accounting information must be capable of making dissimilarity in a decision.Relevant in sequence should have predictive value, feedback value, and timeliness. Relevant information helps decision makers make predictions about future; it has Predictive Value. Relevant information also helps decision makers confirm or accurate previous prospect; it has Feedback Value Most companies must present accounting information according to national accounting standards; generally accepted accounting principles (GAP) symbolize the most trustworthy accounting standards .GAP requires accounting information to include qualitative characteristics on which business stakeholders can rely. B) Understandable. The second feature of management accounting information is that it can be understood by the user of the information. The information clear, simple and easily understood by the manager. This is because most managers do not have a financial or accounting background. Therefore, it is reasonable for the management accountant to use simple terms that can be understood by the management to guarantee that the information is used to make accurate decisions.Long winded information will only be puzzling and may cause erroneous decisions to be made. This implies the expression, with clarity, of accounting information in such a way that it will be understandable to users Ã¢â¬â who are generally assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business and economic activities Accounting information and financial tenements should be prepared in such a way as to facil itate understanding by users of the financial statements. Information about complex matters should be presented, if important or material.Users of information and financial statements are assumed to have a reasonable knowledge of business, economy, and accounting and to be willing to study information to gain a reasonable level of financial expertise. C) Timely. A piece of information is Just useful to the management if it is received in a timely manner. If Kid's the management accounting information is received late, the correct actions cannot be taken or the decision made will no longer be of value. D) Comparable. Accounting information must be comparable. Kid's management accounting information is often used by the management to make comparisons.Accounting information and financial statements should be equipped in such a way as to assist assessment of entity information during time and also alongside information from different, but similar, entities. Comparability results when di fferent enterprises apply the same accounting management to similar events. Compliance with international accounting standards helps to enhance comparability. ) Reliable and Complete. KID'S management accounting information is always associated with the future. However, it cannot be 100% accurate. It only has to be accurate for a decision within a relevant range.Thus, important and useful information during particular period cannot be left out. This is to ensure that the information is reliable as well as complete. Reliability is the quality of information that authorized users to depend on it with assurance. This means it is verifiable, has faithful representation, and is reasonably free of errors and bias. Representative closeness refers to resplendence or agreement between a measure or description and the phenomenon that it purports to represent. That means the numbers and imagery represent what really existed or happened.Accounting information and financial statements should be prepared in such a way that they are free from material error and bias. That is that CDC represent faithfully that which they either hold themselves out to represent or could be reasonably expected to represent. F) With Cost- benefit Features. Kid's the preparation of information will certainly incur cost such as the costs of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the data obtained. Thus, it is important that the information can bring returns that cover the costs involved. In other words, the value of the information obtained must be more than the costs of obtaining it.The information must be useful before it can produce results. All in all, the accounting information is too particular, will enlarge the risk of investor decision- making, therefore the formation of the happening of internal control is leap to influence the entire capital market competence and capital market financing capacity. Thus, accounting information must allow the reader to recognized, so that it can be used pr operly. 2. Planning. CDC must plan for success. What does it mean to plan? It is about deciding on a course of action to reach a desired outcome. Planning must occur at all levels.First, it occurs at the high level of setting strategy. It then moves to broad-based thought about how to establish an optimum position to maximize the potential for realization of goals. Finally, planning must give thoughtful consideration to financial realities/ constraints and anticipated monetary outcomes (budgets). A business organization may be made up of many individuals. These individuals must be orchestrated to work together in harmony. It is important that they share and understand the organizational plans. In short, everyone needs to be on the same page. As such, clear communication is imperative. ) Strategy CDC should invest considerable time and effort in developing strategy. Employees, harried with day-to-day tasks, sometimes fail to see the need to take on strategic planning. It is difficult to see the linkage between strategic endeavors and the day-to- day corporate activities associated with delivering goods and services to customers. But, strategic planning ultimately defines the organization. Specific strategy setting can take many forms, but generally includes elements pertaining to the definition of ore values, mission, and objectives. Core values: An entity should clearly consider and define the rules by which it will play.Core values can cover a broad spectrum involving concepts of fair play, human dignity, ethics, employment/promotion/ compensation, quality, customer service, environmental awareness, and so forth. If CDC does not cause its members to understand and focus on these important elements, it will soon find participants becoming solely Ã¢â¬Å"profit-centric. Ã¢â¬ This behavior leads to a short-term focus and potentially dangerous practices that may provide the seeds of self-destruction. Remember that management is to build business value by making the right decisions, and decisions about core values are essential.Be aware that the Institute of Management Accountants (AMA) is a representative group for the managerial accounting profession. The IMAM has established a set of ethical standards for its members that are part of the core values for the profession. Imam's overarching ethical principles include: Honesty, Fairness, Objectivity, and Responsibility. Many IMAM members have earned the CAM (certified management accountant) and CFML (certified financial manager) designations. These certificates represent significant competencies in managerial accounting and financial management skills, as well as a pledge to follow the ethical precepts of the Ã¢â¬ËMA.Mission: CDC attempt to prepare a pithy statement about their mission. Such mission statements provide a snapshot of CDC and provide a focal point against which to match ideas and actions. They provide an important planning element because they define Kid's purpose and direct ion. Interestingly, some organizations have avoided mission, in fear that it will limit opportunity for expansive thinking. For example, General Electric specifically states that it does not have a mission statement, per SE. Instead, its operating philosophy and business objectives are clearly articulated each year in the Letter to Shareowner, Employees and Customers.In some sense, though, Gee's tag line reflects its mission: imagination at work. Perhaps the subliminal mission is to pursue opportunity wherever it can be found. As a result, GE is one of the world's most diversified entities in terms of the range of products and services it offers. Overall, the strategic structure of CDC is established by how well it defines its values and purpose. But, how does the managerial accountant help in this process? At first lance, these strategic issues seem to be broad and without accounting context.But, information is needed about the returns that are being generated for investors; this a ccounting information is necessary to determine whether the profit objective is being achieved. Actually, though, managerial accounting goes much deeper. For example, how are core values policed? Consider that someone must monitor and provide information on environmental compliance. What is the most effective method for handling and properly disposing of hazardous waste? Are there alternative products that may cost more to acquire but cost less to dispose? What system must be established to record and track such material?All of these issues require accountability. As another example, ethical codes likely deal with bidding procedures to obtain the best prices from capable suppliers. What controls are needed to monitor the purchasing process, provide for the best prices, and audit the quality of procured goods? All of these issues quickly evolve into internal accounting tasks. B) Positioning. An important part of the planning process is positioning CDC to achieve its goals. Positionin g is a broad concept and depends on gathering and evaluating accounting information.Costumer/Profit analysis and scalability: A subsequent chapter will cover cost/volume/profit analysis. It is imperative for managers to understand the nature of cost behavior and how changes in volume impact profitability. Methods include calculating break-even points and determining how to manage to achieve target income levels. Managerial accountants study business models and the ability (or inability) to bring them to profitability via increases in scale. Global Trade and Transfer: The management accountant frequently performs significant and complex analysis related to global activities.This requires in-depth research into laws about tariffs, taxes, and shipping. In addition, global enterprises may transfer inventory and services between affiliated units in alternative countries. These transactions must be fairly measured to establish reasonable transfer prices (or potentially run afoul of tax an d other rules of various countries involved). Once again, the management accountant is called to the task. Branding / Pricing / Sensitivity / Competition: In positioning a company's products and services, considerable thought must be given to branding and its impact on the business.To build a brand requires considerable investment with an uncertain payback. Frequently, the same product can be positioned as an elite brand via a large investment in up-front advertising, or as a basic consumer product that will depend upon low price to drive sales. What is the correct approach? Information is needed to make the decision, and management will likely enlist the internal accounting staff to prepare prospective information based upon alternative scenarios. Likewise, product pricing decisions must be balanced against costs and competitive market conditions.And, sensitivity analysis is needed o determine how sales and costs will respond to changes in market conditions. Decisions about positio ning Kid's products and services are quite complex. The prudent manager will need considerable data to make good decisions. Management accountants will be directly involved in providing such data. They will usually work side-by-side with management in helping correctly interpret and utilize the information. It is worthwhile for a good manager to study the basic principles of managerial accounting in order to better understand how information can be effectively utilized in the decision process. Budgets. A necessary planning component is budgeting. Budgets outline the financial plans for an organization. There are various types of budgets. Kid's budgeting process must take into account ongoing operations, capital expenditure plans, and corporate financing. Operating Budgets: A plan must provide definition of the anticipated revenues and expenses of CDC, and more. Operating budgets can become fairly detailed. The process usually begins with an assessment of anticipated sales and procee ds to a detailed mapping of specific inventory purchases, staffing plans, and so forth.These budgets oftentimes delineate allowable levels of expenditures for various departments. Capital Budgets: The budgeting process must also contemplate the need for capital expenditures relating to new facilities and equipment. These longer-term expenditure decisions must be evaluated logically to determine whether an investment can be Justified and what rate and duration of payback is likely to occur. Financial Budgets: CDC must assess financing needs, including an evaluation of potential cash shortages. These estimates enable companies to meet with lenders and demonstrate why and when additional financial support may be needed.The budget process is quite important (no matter how tedious the process may seem) to the viability of an organization. Several of the subsequent chapters are devoted to the nature and elements of sound budgeting. 3) Directing. There are many good plans that are never re alized. To realize a plan requires the initiation and direction of numerous actions. Often, these actions must be well coordinated and timed. Resources must be ready, and authorizations need to be in place to enable persons to act according to the plan. By analogy, imagine that a composer has written a beautiful score of music.For it to come to life requires all members of the orchestra, and a conductor who can bring the orchestra into synchronization and harmony. Likewise, the managerial accountant has a major role in moving business plans into action. Information systems must be developed to allow management to maneuver the organization. Management must know that inventory is available when needed, productive resources (people and machinery) are scheduled appropriately, transportation systems will be available to deliver output, and so on. In addition, management must be ready to demonstrate compliance with contracts and regulations.These are complex tasks which cannot occur witho ut strong information resources provided by management accountants. Managerial accounting supports the Ã¢â¬Å"directingÃ¢â¬ function in many ways. Areas of support include costing, production management, and special analysis. A) Costing. A strong manager must understand how costs are captured and assigned to goods and services. This is more complex than most people realize. Costing is such an extensive part of the management accounting function that many people refer to management accountants as cost accountants. But, cost accounting is only a subset f managerial accounting applications.Cost accounting can be defined as the collection, assignment, and interpretation of cost. Subsequent chapters introduce alternative costing methods. It is important to know the cost of products and services. The ideal approach to capturing costs is dependent on what is being produced. Costing Methods: In some settings, costs may be captured by the Job costing method. CDC might consider tracing cos ts and assigning them to activities (e. G. , training, client development, etc. ). Then, an allocation model can be used to attribute selected activities to a Job.Such activity-based costing systems are particularly well suited to situations where overhead is high, and/or a variety of products and services are produced. Costing Concepts: In addition to alternative methods of costing, a good manager will need to understand different theories or concepts about costing. In a general sense, these approaches can be described as absorption and direct costing concepts. Under the absorption concept, a product or service would be assigned its full cost, including amounts that are not easily identified with a particular item, such as overhead items moieties called burden.Overhead can include facilities depreciation, utilities, maintenance, and many other similar shared costs. With absorption costing, this overhead is schematically allocated among all units of output. In other words, output ab sorbs the full cost of the productive process. Absorption costing is required for external reporting purposes under generally accepted accounting principles. Some managers are aware that sole reliance on absorption costing numbers can lead to bad decisions. As a result, internal cost accounting processes in CDC focus on a direct costing approach.With direct costing, a unit of output will be assigned only its direct cost of production (e. G. , direct materials, direct labor, and overhead that occurs with each unit produced). Future chapters examine differences between absorption and direct costing. B) Production. Successfully directing an organization requires prudent management of production. Because this is a hands-on process, and frequently involves dealing with the tangible portions of the business (inventory, fabrication, assembly, etc. ), some managers are especially focused on this area of oversight.Managerial accounting provides numerous tools for managers to use in support o f production and logistics (moving goods through production to a customer). To generalize, production management is about running a lean business model. This means that costs must be minimized and efficiency maximized, while seeking to achieve enhanced output and quality standards. In the past few decades, advances in technology have greatly contributed to the ability to run a lean business. Product fabrication and assembly have been improved through virtually error-free robotics.Accountability is handled via comprehensive software that tracks an array of data on a real-time basis. These enterprise resource packages are extensive in their power to deliver specific query- based information for CDC. BOB (business to business) systems provide data interchange with sufficient power to enable Kid's information system to automatically initiate a product order on its vendor's information system. Logistics is facilitated by radio frequency identification processors embedded in inventory tha t enable a computer to automatically track the quantity and location of inventory.MM (machine to machine) enables connected devices to communicate information without requiring human engagement. These developments ultimately enhance CDC efficiency and the living standards of customers who benefit from better and cheaper products. But, despite their robust power, they do not replace human decision making. Managers must pay attention to the information being produced, and be ready to adjust business processes in response. Inventory: For a manufacturing CDC inventory may consist of raw materials, work in process, and finished goods.The raw materials are the components and parts that are to be eventually processed into a final product. Work in process consists of goods that are actually under production. Finished goods are the completed units awaiting sale to customers. Each category will require special consideration and control. Failure to properly manage any category of inventory can be disastrous. Overstocking raw materials or overproduction of finished goods will increase costs and obsolescence. Conversely, out-of-stock situations for raw materials will silence the production line.Failure to have goods on hand might result in lost sales. Subsequent chapters cover inventory management. Popular techniques include Just-in-time inventory management and economic order quantity. Responsibility Considerations: Enabling and motivating employees to work at peak performance is an important managerial role. For this to occur, employees must perceive that their productive efficiency and quality of output are fairly measured. A good manager will understand and be able to explain to others how such measures are determined.Direct productive processes must be supported by many service departments (maintenance, engineering, accounting, cafeterias, etc. ). These service departments have nothing to sell to outsiders, but are essential components of operation. The costs of servi ce departments must be recovered for a business to survive. It is easy for a production manager to focus solely on the area under direct control and ignore the costs of support tasks. Yet, good management decisions require full consideration of the costs of support services.Many alternative techniques are used by managerial accountants to allocate responsibility for CDC costs. A good manager will understand the need for such allocations and be able to explain and Justify them to employees who may not be fully aware of why profitability is more difficult to achieve than it would seem. In addition, techniques must be utilized to capture the cost of quality, or perhaps better aid, the cost of a lack of quality. Finished goods that do not function as promised cause substantial warranty costs, including rework, shipping, and scrap.There is also an extreme long-run cost associated with a lack of customer satisfaction. Understanding concepts of responsibility accounting will also require o ne to think about attaching inputs and outcomes to those responsible for their ultimate disposition. In other words, a manager must be held accountable, but to do this requires the ability to monitor costs incurred and deliverables produced by defined areas of accountability (centers of responsibility). This does not happen by accident and requires extensive systems development work, as well as training and explanation, on the part of management accountants. ) Analysis. Certain business decisions have recurrent themes: whether to outsource production and/or support functions, what level of production and pricing to establish, whether to accept special orders with private label branding or special pricing, and so forth. Managerial accounting provides theoretical models of calculations that are needed to support these types of decisions. Although such models are not perfect in every case, hey certainly are effective in stimulating correct thought. The seemingly obvious answer may not always yield the truly correct or best decision.Therefore, subsequent chapters will provide insight into the logic and methods that need to be employed to manage these types of business decisions. 4) Controlling. Things rarely go exactly as planned, and management must make a concerted effort to monitor and adjust for deviations. The managerial accountant is a major facilitator of this control process, including exploration of alternative corrective strategies to remedy unfavorable situations. In addition, a recent trend is for enhanced internal controls and mandatory certifications by Coos and Scoffs as to the accuracy of financial reports.These certifications carry penalties of perjury, and have gotten the attention of corporate executives. This has led to greatly expanded emphasis on controls of the various internal and external reporting mechanisms. CDC has a person designated as controller (sometimes termed Ã¢â¬Å"comptrollerÃ¢â¬ ). The controller is an important and respecte d position within CDC also the largest corporations. CDC control function is of sufficient complexity that a controller may have hundreds of purport personnel to assist with all phases of the management accounting process.As this person's title suggests, the controller is primarily responsible for the control task; providing leadership for the entire cost and managerial accounting functions. In contrast, the chief financial officer (SCOFF) is usually responsible for external reporting, the treasury function, and general cash flow and financing management. In CDC, one person may serve a dual role as both the SCOFF and controller. Larger organizations may also have a separate internal audit group that reviews the work of the accounting and treasury units.Because internal auditors are reporting on the effectiveness and integrity of other units within a business organization, they usually report directly to the highest levels of corporate leadership. A) Monitor. Begin by thinking about controlling a car. Steering, acceleration, and braking are not random; they are careful corrective responses to constant monitoring of many variables like traffic, road conditions, and so forth. Clearly, each action is in response to having monitored conditions and adopted an adjusting response. Likewise, business managers must rely on systematic monitoring tools to maintain awareness
Thursday, January 9, 2020
The Progressive Era was a period that exposed the contradictions found in American society in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Theodore Roosevelt summed up the Progressive/Reform feeling in his Square Deal speech - that it was all about morals, not economics. His goal was the moral regeneration of the business world. He preached that it was wrong for some people to get ahead in business and politics by tricks and schemes, while others were cheated out of the opportunity. This was the kind of talk that millions of Americans from all areas of society could understand and respond to. Roosevelt simply acted in the interests of the common working man, fixing things that they found unjust. For years, the poor andÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦American reform movements have generally been started as a rebellion against the control of big businesses and corrupt government. The poor conditions of schools and the entire education system at the turn of the twentieth century were a major cause for reform. That reform movement has influenced the entire education system and has made it better and more suitable for students.(Buenker, 2007) Civil rights for African-Americans and women was just beginning to become an issue in the late 19th century. Many progressivists spoke out for suffrage for women and equal rights for black people. Today, civil rights for minorities is still a big cause for reform. There are many different oraganizations whose goal is to reform the way society, the government and businesses treat any type of minority, including Hispanics, homosexuals and Native Americans. However civil rights is just one of the many causes of modern reform groups. Others include reform of huge companies and monoplolies, welfare programs, education systems and many, many other issues. A reform movement is a shout against people, businesses, governments or ideas that are morally corrupt. Not all reform movements are successful in making an actual change, however even if a significant change isnÃ¢â¬â¢t made their message is still shared with the public. Reform group leaders are usually involved in the government and have a strongShow MoreRelatedProgressives And The Progressive Era1253 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe progressive Era was times in History were local state and federal government took a leap forward in power and activism. In addition, the progressive era, was a time of development of new reforms and changes for America. Progressivism handles a wide range of problems and struggle for America. Such problems were created by unstructed industrialization, urbanization and immigration. As well as, the unfavorable distribution of power and wealth. Progressives believed strongly that problems such asRead MoreThe Progressive Era Of The Era1949 Words Ã |Ã 8 P agesshaped the United States throughout all of history. The most important of these changes, however, occurred during AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s progressive era. The Progressive era is defined as the time period of 1890 to 1920. Even though, progressive presidents were not in office during that entire time period, the ideals that they enacted and developed throughout the United States. The Progressive Era saw the expansion and contraction of political and economic freedoms through pure democracy. Socially, the new consumerRead MoreThe Progressive Era 938 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Progressive Era was a time period between the years 1900-1920 and it marked a time in American history in which society was bursting with enthusiasm to improve life in the industrial age by making political and social changes through government action that ultimately led to a higher quality of life for American citizens. Progressives were known for their beliefs in limiting the power of big business, strengthening th e power of the states, and were advocators against corruption and social injusticeRead MoreThe Progressive Era845 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages1--Discuss, in detail, the main overall goals of the Progressives. The Progressive Era was mainly a retaliation to numerous changes and social effects that were happening in America. The era emerged in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s from complications with the latest industrial order, which included workers who protested about how their jobs were unsafe and exhausting. They also focused on byproducts such as immigration, urban growth, growing corporate power, and widening class divisions. They were also known as humanitariansRead MoreThe Progressive Era Of The Revolutionary Era1723 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe reformist movement? Why? The root of the Progressive Era comes from the emergence of industrialism in the United States had created some terrible problems and they wanted to work together to change the U.S government. Therefore, address the problems that had come about from the Industrial Revolution. The progressive era was all about making advances in a better society, the feature of democracy during the progressive movement a lot of these progressive at local state levels started to focus on cleaningRead MoreThe Importance Of The Progressive Era1310 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Progressive era was a time in AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s history when people started to call for the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s help to face the problems industrialization brought. This era was extremely important because it helped the people achieve better conditions and helped the government to make better use of its powers. One of the most potent groups of progressivists were muckrakers; they used journalism to bring forward problems and injustices in society and the work industry (McKeown). The Triangle Shirtwaist FireRead MoreThe Progressive Movement Of The American Progressive Era1259 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen it comes to the American Progressive Era there is really no other movement like it. This was a movement that had not just one but many faces that ranged from people as big as Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson to people like Jane Addams that accomplished so much. It was a movement so broad that it encompassed basically everyone and spoke not just to but for all those excluded from power. It also wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t just one big movement but a conglomeration of them varying from social, to economic, toRead More The Progressive Era Essay798 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesall power rested with the politicians and businessmen. Reformers known as Progressives attempted to undo the problems caused by industrialization. The Progressive movement sought to end the influence of large corporations, provide more rights and benefits to wor kers, and end the control possessed by party leaders. At the national level, Progressivism centered on defeating the power of large businesses. The Progressive Era was a period in American history in which improving working conditions, exposingRead More The Progressive Era Essay984 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Progressive Era nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Progressivism in the United States took place in the period between the Spanish-American War and the entry of the United States into the great World War. It was a time for change in America in all walks of life, as well as a time for reform. It was marked by Theodore Roosevelts 7 and a half years in office, the Rough Rider put it upon himself to make the first strides towards reform. These reforms included the cracking down on illegal monopoliesRead MoreThe During The Progressive Era989 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDuring the Progressive Era, various groups responded to the political, social, and economic woes that resulted from the rapid industrialization and urbanization of America during the 19th Century. The mass immigration of foreigners and the northern migration of Africa-Americans led to urban overcrowding and competition for wage-paying jobs. Electric lighting allowed factories to expand the working hours and increase the output of manufactured goods. There was little regulation for employee welfare